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What Is B2C?

Updated Feb 21, 2023

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Bassam Kaado
Contributing Writer at
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  • Consumer behavior drives business-to-consumer businesses and companies must adjust as behaviors change.  
  • Five distinct B2C segments capture various consumer-marketing interactions, bringing unique revenue streams.
  • B2C business challenges include creating user-friendly websites, understanding search engine optimization and finding the right payment processing solution. 
  • This article is for anyone seeking to understand the basics of B2C companies and transactions.

When starting a business, you can choose from several operational models. You can focus on selling to other businesses and become a business-to-business (B2B) business or you can sell directly to consumers. You can even sell to businesses and consumers if your offering applies to both or if you have separate product versions. 

If you’re selling to consumers, your company will be a business-to-consumer (B2C) business. We’ll explore the B2C business model, including the various types of B2C businesses and B2C challenges. 

What is B2C?

B2C stands for “business to consumer.” B2C transactions are commerce transactions where a business sells products or services directly to consumers. Traditional B2C transactions included buying clothes from a store at the mall or eating in a restaurant. 

However, today, B2C typically refers to e-commerce transactions, with companies selling products online directly to consumers. B2C is one of four e-commerce categories. The others are: 

B2C is the most well-known model. If you’ve ever purchased an item online for personal use, you’ve experienced a B2C transaction. 

Did You Know?Did you know

B2B companies can include businesses selling software-as-a-service (SaaS) subscriptions, marketing firms, payroll service providers and suppliers of other business products and services.

Evolution of B2C

As the internet grew in the 1990s, hundreds of thousands of domain names were registered in anticipation of an e-commerce revolution. New technologies arose to address emerging cybersecurity issues. When Netscape developed secure socket layer (SSL) encryption certificates, consumers became more comfortable transmitting data over the internet. Web browsers could identify whether a site had an authenticated SSL certificate, helping consumers find trustworthy e-commerce stores. SSL encryption is still a vital part of fighting network security threats today.

The mid-1990s and 2000s saw the rise of e-commerce through sites like Amazon and Zappos. Today, it’s rare to see a consumer-based business that doesn’t sell products online. Consumers enjoy the convenience of online shopping and businesses thrive on low overhead. With a virtual storefront, a business doesn’t need a brick-and-mortar location or extensive inventory stocked at all times. An e-commerce website is ideal for small B2C businesses like jewelry stores and bakeries. 


Dropshipping and fulfillment centers are innovations that allow a layered B2C approach and facilitate inventory management. Sellers can act as interfaces between third-party warehousers and customers.

Types of B2C online business models

Consumers regularly interact with various B2C models daily. Here are the five most common B2C business types in today’s market.

1. Direct seller B2C online business model

The direct seller online business model is the most common. In this scenario, consumers purchase products from a company that fulfills this transaction from its inventory.

Direct sellers can be established brands with physical stores that expand their services to include an online presence and inventory, such as Home Depot or Target. It can also be a fully online store, such as  

2. Intermediary B2C online business model

Online intermediaries are another popular model. In this model, a third party acts as a middleman between the seller and the consumer. These businesses bring sellers a buyer network and bring consumers vendors to buy from.

The intermediary model has grown and evolved. For example, online travel sites like Expedia and Priceline collect flight, hotel and car rental information and provide it to consumers. These services streamline the travel process. 

Online marketplaces are another intermediary form. The biggest example is Amazon, a powerful intermediary that covers nearly every product genre. Etsy and other Etsy alternatives specializing in creative wares are also online intermediaries. Sellers can create Etsy shops that target a specific audience.

Key TakeawayKey takeaway

Businesses that want to use Amazon as an intermediary can start selling on Amazon by subscribing to a marketplace plan. They can also create an Amazon Store with customized landing pages.

3. Advertising-based B2C online business model

Another B2C model receives indirect consumer revenue. These companies provide free content or services that attract significant web traffic and use that traffic to sell ads to other companies. 

Companies that choose this model must promote their brand and market heavily to achieve consistent, increasing traffic and place as many consumers as possible in front of paid ads. If their efforts don’t lead to sales for their advertisers, they risk losing those advertisers.

Examples of companies that use an advertising-based B2C model include online publications like The Huffington Post, TechCrunch and The Guardian.

4. Community-based B2C online business model

The community-based B2C model is similar to the advertising-based model, relying on significant consumer interaction. However, these companies foster online communities built around a shared interest and attract advertisers who want to sell to site users.

For example, if a company has a specific product, such as camping equipment, it will advertise on websites, blogs and forums focused on camping and outdoor activities.

The strongest example of this B2C model is Meta (formerly Facebook). Utilizing consumer data, Meta can hone in on shared interests and help businesses connect to their target customers via location data and demographics.  

5. Fee-based B2C online business model

In the fee-based model, B2C companies charge consumers a subscription fee to use their services. These are recurring transactions, not one-time purchases. There’s often a tier-based fee system with various features and functions. 

Streaming businesses are fee-based B2C companies. For example, Netflix was an entertainment streaming trailblazer that opened the market for competitors like Disney+, Hulu and HBO Max. 

Food-based delivery services are also fee-based B2C examples. Consider companies like HelloFresh that deliver meal kits to consumers on a subscription basis.

Did You Know?Did you know

Aside from Hello Fresh, other unique delivery services that work on a fee-based model include Postmates, Blue Apron and Instacart.

Challenges of B2C

B2C businesses face unique challenges to stay competitive and grow, including the following. 

1. B2C businesses need a user-friendly website.

Building an effective business website is crucial to serve customers, open new markets and expand your business inexpensively. Websites don’t have to be flashy, but they must be easy for consumers to navigate and provide them with a friction-free experience. 

Website creation tips include: 

2. B2C businesses must prioritize SEO.

B2C businesses must pay attention to search engine optimization (SEO) so their websites can rise to the top of internet search rankings. 

Customers generally choose business websites on the first page of results after searching for specific keywords or phrases. Without SEO optimization, your business will get buried in the mix, miss out on traffic and lose potential customers.

To ensure top-quality SEO, businesses can: 

  • Work with SEO consultants: Consider consulting with marketing managers or consultants well-versed and trained in this growing field. 
  • Implement SEO best practices: Creating high-quality, authoritative evergreen content can improve SEO rankings. Update your content regularly, get backlinks from well-regarded sites, use internal links and track metrics with Google Analytics.  
  • Purchase paid listings: Companies can also purchase paid listings to rank highly. However, paying for SEO ranking and individual campaigns can be costly. This strategy results in another business expense, reducing your profit margins. 

3. B2C businesses must choose a payment processor wisely. 

Payment processing is another game-changing challenge. B2C businesses must accept credit cards, accommodate myriad payment options, ensure Payment Card Industry-compliance and process all payments securely. 

Choosing an excellent, reputable payment processor is essential. Additionally, services like PayPal and Venmo can perform payment processing for online vendors, providing a one-stop solution whether the customer is online or buying in person.


If your B2C business needs a credit card processor, check out our reviews of the best credit card processing companies to find one that fits your needs and budget.


Business-to-consumer sales strategies and operations present many questions for small business owners. Here are some of the most common questions and their answers.

What is an example of B2C?

Traditional B2C examples include major retailers like Walmart or Target. Looking specifically at e-commerce, there’s no better example than Amazon. The storefront is entirely electronic and Amazon serves more consumers daily than any other business.

What is the difference between B2C and B2B?

B2B stands for business to business. B2B companies specifically sell products or services to other companies. B2C businesses cater specifically to consumers, offering items or services that make sense to buy on an individual basis.

What are the advantages of B2C?

Modern B2C businesses focus heavily on e-commerce. Many B2C companies lack a physical storefront. This lowers overhead and increases the target audience. Being online also makes it easy for B2C companies to track large amounts of data related to their operations. They can use analytics to improve business policies and strategies.

B2C is a crucial part of our economy

B2C businesses hold a crucial market position and serve millions of people worldwide. B2C businesses will continue flourishing alongside e-commerce – and e-commerce will continue skyrocketing amid trends like mobile and social media shopping. According to Statista, United States retail e-commerce sales reached nearly $266 billion in the third quarter of 2022.

Ensure your B2C business’s success by identifying what your customers want and distinguishing your products and services from the competition.

Adam Uzialko contributed to this article. 

Bassam Kaado
Contributing Writer at
Bassam Kaado is a New Jersey based writer, communications specialist, and artist. He has over a decade of freelance and small business Public Relations and Marketing experience that includes both B2C and B2B focuses. He has over a decade of experience as a copywriter, ghostwriter, and copy editor, in both business and creative disciplines. Bassam also has worked within the entertainment business and is an active artist.
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