Let’s say you paid an employee $60,000 last year and calculated their federal taxes for the year as $13,538.50. That would be correct based on FICA and federal income tax rates, but it would be incorrect if you provide certain benefits. In that instance, you’ll also need to add imputed income to the employee’s $60,000 gross wages to reflect these benefits’ cash value. Below, learn more about calculating imputed income and the corresponding taxes you must pay.
Imputed income is the cash equivalent value of an employee’s non-cash benefits. This value becomes part of the employee’s gross income. As such, imputed income is taxable, and you must report it on your employees’ W-2 forms. Your business will typically pay FICA tax (Social Security and Medicare tax) on imputed income, as will your employees. The IRS usually doesn’t levy federal income taxes on imputed income.
Another way to look at imputed income is to consider it the cash value of the non-cash benefits or services a business owner gives their employees. When you provide these benefits to staff, you pay for them so the employee doesn’t have to. The IRS classifies the money you spend on these benefits as money you pay your employees.
Imputed income primarily encompasses the cash value of fringe benefits. This type of benefit describes any perk or compensation you provide your employees in addition to their actual wages. That definition might make you think the cash equivalent of all benefits qualifies as imputed income, but that’s not quite the case.
The following benefits qualify as imputed income:
The following benefits do not qualify as imputed income:
Employers should use IRS Form W-2 to report imputed income. Before filling out this form, though, you’ll need to identify all of your business’s fringe benefits. You’ll then eventually have to calculate and pay taxes on these benefits. Below is a step-by-step guide to reporting your employees’ imputed income to the IRS.
Let’s say you give an employee $5,000 in education assistance per year alongside a $600 annual gym membership. These are the only perks you provide besides basic health insurance. In this example, both these perks are fringe benefits, whereas the health insurance is not.
According to the above criteria, the employee education assistance you provide is non-taxable. That’s because it’s under the $5,250 minimum that triggers taxation. However, the $600 gym membership for which you’re paying is taxable. That means the gym membership payment is considered part of the employee’s personal income.
Note that certain taxable fringe benefits, such as personal use of a company car, might not have immediately obvious cash values. In those situations, you’ll have to determine the benefit’s fair market value. For example, a company car’s fair market value would be however much money the employee would pay to obtain the vehicle on their own. You should estimate this value in accordance with the IRS Publication 15-B rules on car valuation.
You’ll need to report the employee’s imputed income alongside their gross wages on Form W-2. You’ll do so in boxes 12a through 12d. Detailed instructions on how to correctly add imputed income to these boxes are available on the back of copies C and 2.
Imputed income also factors into the wages you’ll report in boxes 1, 3 and 5. Box 1 includes “other compensation,” a definition under which imputed income falls. And since imputed income is subject to Social Security and Medicare taxes, you must add it to gross employee wages in boxes 3 and 5.
In most scenarios, imputed income is subject to FICA taxes only. As of 2022, the FICA tax rate is 6.2% for Social Security and 1.45% for Medicare. That’s a total of 7.65%, which corresponds to $45.94 for a $600 yearly gym membership.
These imputed income calculations can be a common source of human error. Payroll software can automate tax formulas while massively cutting down on mistakes. That’s true even if your business’s payroll is highly complex. For companies with complicated payrolls, an advanced platform like ADP can help you dot your i’s and cross your t’s. Read our full ADP review to learn more, and find other great options among our reviews of the best payroll software.
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You can pay your imputed taxes every income period, quarterly, semiannually or annually. Some payroll services can process and submit this payment on your behalf instead of you doing so manually. In other cases, you’ll have to submit the payment yourself, though electronic payment is often possible. [If you don’t use payroll software yet, follow our guide to choosing a payroll service.]
No matter how you pay your imputed income taxes, referencing this guide every time you do should make the whole process easier.