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Despite common perception, outgoing, gregarious and assertive people don't necessarily make for the best salespeople, new research shows.
A study by researcher Adam Grant of The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania discovered that ambiverts, people who are neither introverted nor extroverted but who fall somewhere in between, tend to be the most effective salespeople.
"Although there are plenty of claims in the literature that more extroverted salespeople would perform better, the evidence was surprisingly weak," Grant said.
As part of the study, Grant conducted a personality survey and collected three months of sales data for more than 300 salespeople, both men and women.
Those employees who had intermediate extroversion scores turned out to be the best salespeople, bringing in about 24 percent more revenue than introverts and 32 percent more than extroverts, Grant found.
Grant said he was surprised that people on the two ends of the spectrum — extreme introverts and extreme extroverts — brought in relatively equal amounts of revenue.
The study's findings suggest that the classic stereotype of the extroverted salesperson misses the concept that personality traits like extroversion have costs and benefits, Grant said.
Grant said he believes extreme extroverts might lose out on sales because they don't listen carefully enough to their customers, dominating the conversation with their own perspectives and ideas, while at the same time being assertive and enthusiastic to a fault, leaving customers wary and cautious about being manipulated.
Conversely, ambiverts seem to strike a balance between the two personality traits.
"The ambivert advantage stems from the tendency to be assertive and enthusiastic enough to persuade and close, but at the same time, listening carefully to customers and avoiding the appearance of being overly confident or excited," he said.
The study's results should be taken into consideration both when hiring new employees and training current ones, Grant said. Managers, for example, should work to ensure that their selection and hiring processes aren't biased in favor of extroverts, while training staffs should keep in mind that teaching extroverts to hone their listening skills may be just as important as training introverts to develop their assertiveness and enthusiasm.
The study was recently published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.